Nanotheranostics 2022; 6(4):400-423. doi:10.7150/ntno.74613 This issue

Review

Nanotechnology Advances in the Detection and Treatment of Cancer: An Overview

Sareh Mosleh-Shirazi1†, Milad Abbasi2†, Mohammad reza Moaddeli3†, Ahmad Vaez4†, Mostafa Shafiee2†, Seyed Reza Kasaee5†, Ali Mohammad Amani2✉, Saeid Hatam6,7✉

1. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz, Iran
2. Department of Medical Nanotechnology, School of Advanced Medical Sciences and Technologies, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
3. Assistant Professor, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Dentistry, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran
4. Department of Tissue Engineering and Applied Cell Sciences, School of Advanced Medical Sciences and Technologies, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
5. Shiraz Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
6. Assistant Lecturer, Azad University, Zarghan Branch, Shiraz, Iran
7. ExirBitanic, Science and Technology Park of Fars, Shiraz, Iran
Equal contribution

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Citation:
Mosleh-Shirazi S, Abbasi M, Moaddeli Mr, Vaez A, Shafiee M, Kasaee SR, Amani AM, Hatam S. Nanotechnology Advances in the Detection and Treatment of Cancer: An Overview. Nanotheranostics 2022; 6(4):400-423. doi:10.7150/ntno.74613. Available from https://www.ntno.org/v06p0400.htm

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Abstract

Graphic abstract

Over the last few years, progress has been made across the nanomedicine landscape, in particular, the invention of contemporary nanostructures for cancer diagnosis and overcoming complexities in the clinical treatment of cancerous tissues. Thanks to their small diameter and large surface-to-volume proportions, nanomaterials have special physicochemical properties that empower them to bind, absorb and transport high-efficiency substances, such as small molecular drugs, DNA, proteins, RNAs, and probes. They also have excellent durability, high carrier potential, the ability to integrate both hydrophobic and hydrophilic compounds, and compatibility with various transport routes, making them especially appealing over a wide range of oncology fields. This is also due to their configurable scale, structure, and surface properties. This review paper discusses how nanostructures can function as therapeutic vectors to enhance the therapeutic value of molecules; how nanomaterials can be used as medicinal products in gene therapy, photodynamics, and thermal treatment; and finally, the application of nanomaterials in the form of molecular imaging agents to diagnose and map tumor growth.

Keywords: Nanotechnology, Nanostructures, Cancer therapy, Cancer imaging, Cancer detection