Nanotheranostics 2022; 6(2):184-194. doi:10.7150/ntno.65530 This issue
1. Molecular Pharmacology Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA.
2. Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The City College of New York, 1024 Marshak, 160 Convent Avenue, New York, New York 10031, USA.
3. Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA.
4. Department of Pharmacology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10021, USA.
5. Department of Radiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10021, USA
6. Ph.D. Program in Chemistry, The Graduate Center of the City University of New York, New York, New York 10016, USA.
The application of nanomaterials made of rare earth elements within biomedical sciences continues to make significant progress. The rare earth elements, also called the lanthanides, play an essential role in modern life through materials and electronics. As we learn more about their utility, function, and underlying physics, we can contemplate extending their applications to biomedicine. This particularly applies to diagnosis and radiation therapy due to their relatively unique features, such as an ultra-wide Stokes shift in the luminescence, variable magnetism and potentially tunable properties, due to the library of lanthanides available and their multivalent oxidation state chemistry. The ability to prepare nanomaterials of relatively smaller sizes has increased the likelihood of use in vivo. In this review, we summarize the different emerging applications of nanoparticles with rare earth elements as the host or doped elements for biomedical applications in the past three to four years, especially in the area of imaging and disease diagnosis. Researchers have made progress in utilizing surfactants and polymers to modify the surface of lanthanide nanoparticles to enhance biocompatibility. At the same time, specific antibodies and proteins can also be conjugated to these nanoparticles to increase targeting efficiency for specific tumor models. Finally, in the near-infrared II imaging window, lanthanide nanoparticles have been shown to exhibit extraordinary bright emission, which is an exciting development for image-guided surgery.
Keywords: Lanthanide Nanomaterials, Imaging, Sensing, Therapy