Nanotheranostics 2022; 6(1):31-49. doi:10.7150/ntno.62970 This issue
1. Department of Imaging, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA.
2. Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.
3. Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA.
4. Department of Cancer Immunology and Virology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA.
5. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus.
* denotes equal contribution
In the last two decades, the application of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoparticles for preclinical cancer imaging has attracted increasing attention. Raman imaging with SERS nanoparticles offers unparalleled sensitivity, providing a platform for molecular targeting, and granting multiplexed and multimodal imaging capabilities. Recent progress has been facilitated not only by the optimization of the SERS contrast agents themselves, but also by the developments in Raman imaging approaches and instrumentation. In this article, we review the principles of Raman scattering and SERS, present advances in Raman instrumentation specific to cancer imaging, and discuss the biological means of ensuring selective in vivo uptake of SERS contrast agents for targeted, multiplexed, and multimodal imaging applications. We offer our perspective on areas that must be addressed in order to facilitate the clinical translation of SERS contrast agents for in vivo imaging in oncology.