Nanotheranostics 2022; 6(1):1-9. doi:10.7150/ntno.58965

Research Paper

Design and evaluation of Raman reporters for the Raman-silent region

Konstantinos Plakas1*, Lauren E. Rosch1*, Michael D. Clark1, Shukree Adbul-Rashed1, Travis M. Shaffer2,3, Stefan Harmsen2,3,4,✉, Sanjiv S. Gambhir2,3,5,6,*,†, Michael R. Detty1,*,‡

1. Department of Chemistry, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, USA.
2. Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford University (MIPS), Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.
3. Department of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.
4. Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, PA, USA.
5. Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.
6. Department of Material Science & Engineering, Stanford University School of Engineering, Stanford, CA, USA.
*Authors contributed equally.
Deceased July 18, 2020
Deceased July 1, 2020

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Citation:
Plakas K, Rosch LE, Clark MD, Adbul-Rashed S, Shaffer TM, Harmsen S, Gambhir SS, Detty MR. Design and evaluation of Raman reporters for the Raman-silent region. Nanotheranostics 2022; 6(1):1-9. doi:10.7150/ntno.58965. Available from https://www.ntno.org/v06p0001.htm

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Abstract

Rationale: Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is proving to be a useful tool for biomedical imaging. However, this imaging technique can suffer from poor signal-to-noise ratio, as the complexity of biological tissues can lead to overlapping of Raman bands from tissues and the Raman reporter molecule utilized. Methods: Herein we describe the synthesis of triple bond containing Raman reporters that scatter light in the biological silent window, between 1750 cm-1 and 2750 cm-1. Results: Our SERS nanoprobes are comprised of uniquely designed Raman reporters containing either alkyne- or cyano-functional groups, enabling them to be readily distinguished from background biological tissue. Conclusion: We identify promising candidates that eventually can be moved forward as Raman reporters in SERS nanoparticles for highly specific contrast-enhanced Raman-based disease or analyte detection in biological applications.

Keywords: Nanotag, surface-enhanced Raman scattering, Raman-silent region, triple bonds