Nanotheranostics 2021; 5(4):405-416. doi:10.7150/ntno.59290

Research Paper

A Pegylated Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide PEG Complex to Boost Immunogenic and Therapeutic Effects in a Liver Cancer Model

Celia Arib1#, Hui Liu2#, Qiqian Liu1, Anne-Marie Cieutat1, Didier Paleni3, Xiaowu Li2✉, Jolanda Spadavecchia1,2✉

1. CNRS, UMR 7244, NBD-CSPBAT, Laboratoire de Chimie, Structures et Propriétés de Biomatériaux et d'Agents Thérapeutiques Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Nord, Bobigny, France.
2. Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Regional Immunity and Diseases & Carson International Cancer Center, Shenzhen University General Hospital & Shenzhen University Clinical Medical Academy Center, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, China.
3. BioEVEN start-up, 75 rue de Lourmel 75015 Paris, France.
#These authors contributed equally to this work.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( See for full terms and conditions.
Arib C, Liu H, Liu Q, Cieutat AM, Paleni D, Li X, Spadavecchia J. A Pegylated Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide PEG Complex to Boost Immunogenic and Therapeutic Effects in a Liver Cancer Model. Nanotheranostics 2021; 5(4):405-416. doi:10.7150/ntno.59290. Available from

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Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is engaged in several metabolic diseases. Its main role is being a cofactor essential for the activity of many flavoproteins, which play a crucial role in electron transport pathways in living systems. The aim of this study was to apply a pegylated flavins formulation named FAD-PEG diacide complex as theranostic pathway in cancer therapy. For this purpose, a mouse liver cancer model induced by Hepa1-6 cells was used to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of FAD (named NP1) and FAD-PEG diacide complex (named NP2). The cytokines were applied to screen the serum inflammatory factors, to establish the blood cell content of different groups of nude mice. The highlights follows that FAD formulations (NP1; NP2) significantly suppressed the tumor growth and reduced the tumor index without effects on the body weight of mice. Furthermore, NP2 significantly reduced the serum levels of cytokines IL-6, TNF-α and IL-12 (P70). The reported results provide the proof-of-concept for the synthesis of a smart adjuvant for liver cancer therapy and support their further development in the field of nanomedicine.