Nanotheranostics 2021; 5(3):321-332. doi:10.7150/ntno.56401


The unfavorable role of titanium particles released from dental implants

Zilan Zhou1,2*, Quan Shi3*, Jie Wang1,2, Xiaohang Chen1,2, Yujia Hao1,2, Yuan Zhang1,2, Xing Wang1,2✉

1. Shanxi Medical University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Taiyuan 030001, China.
2. Shanxi Province Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases Prevention and New Materials, Taiyuan 030001, China.
3. Institute of Stomatology, First Medical Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China.
* These authors have contributed equally to this work.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( See for full terms and conditions.
Zhou Z, Shi Q, Wang J, Chen X, Hao Y, Zhang Y, Wang X. The unfavorable role of titanium particles released from dental implants. Nanotheranostics 2021; 5(3):321-332. doi:10.7150/ntno.56401. Available from

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Titanium is considered to be a metal material with the best biological safety. Studies have proved that the titanium implanted in the bone continuously releases titanium particles (Ti particles), significantly increasing the total titanium content in human body. Generally, Ti particles are released slowly without causing a systemic immune response. However, the continuous increased local concentration may result in damage to the intraepithelial homeostasis, aggravation of inflammatory reaction in the surrounding tissues, bone resorption and implant detachment. They also migrate with blood flow and aggregate in the distal organ. The release of Ti particles is affected by the score of the implant surface structure, microenvironment wear and corrosion, medical operation wear, and so on, but the specific mechanism is not clear. Thus, it difficult to prevent the release completely. This paper reviews the causes of the Ti particles formation, the damage to the surrounding tissue, and its mechanism, in particular, methods for reducing the release and toxicity of the Ti particles.

Keywords: Titanium Particles, Chemical Corrosion, Surface Wear, Surface Modification.