Nanotheranostics 2021; 5(3):288-308. doi:10.7150/ntno.49619

Review

Review of nanotheranostics for molecular mechanisms underlying psychiatric disorders and commensurate nanotherapeutics for neuropsychiatry: The mind knockout

Rajiv Kumar1✉, Bhupender S Chhikara2✉, Kiran Gulia3, Mitrabasu Chhillar4

1. NIET, National Institute of Medical Science, India.
2. Department of Chemistry, Aditi Mahavidyalaya, University of Delhi. Delhi, 110039, India.
3. Materials and Manufacturing, School of Engineering, University of Wolverhampton, England, TF2 9NN, UK.
4. Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS) Brig. S. K. Mazumdar Marg Delhi 110054, India.

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Citation:
Kumar R, Chhikara BS, Gulia K, Chhillar M. Review of nanotheranostics for molecular mechanisms underlying psychiatric disorders and commensurate nanotherapeutics for neuropsychiatry: The mind knockout. Nanotheranostics 2021; 5(3):288-308. doi:10.7150/ntno.49619. Available from https://www.ntno.org/v05p0288.htm

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Abstract

Bio-neuronal led psychiatric abnormalities transpired by the loss of neuronal structure and function (neurodegeneration), pro-inflammatory cytokines, microglial dysfunction, altered neurotransmission, toxicants, serotonin deficiency, kynurenine pathway, and excessively produced neurotoxic substances. These uncontrolled happenings in the etiology of psychiatric disorders initiate further changes in neurotransmitter metabolism, pathologic microglial, cell activation, and impaired neuroplasticity. Inflammatory cytokines, the outcome of dysfunctional mitochondria, dysregulation of the immune system, and under stress functions of the brain are leading biochemical factors for depression and anxiety. Nanoscale drug delivery platforms, inexpensive diagnostics using nanomaterials, nano-scale imaging technologies, and ligand-conjugated nanocrystals used for elucidating the molecular mechanisms and foremost cellular communications liable for such disorders are highly capable features to study for efficient diagnosis and therapy of the mental illness. These theranostic tools made up of multifunctional nanomaterials have the potential for effective and accurate diagnosis, imaging of psychiatric disorders, and are at the forefront of leading technologies in nanotheranostics openings field as they can collectively and efficiently target the stimulated territories of the cerebellum (cells and tissues) through molecular-scale interactions with higher bioavailability, and bio-accessibility. Specifically, the nanoplatforms based neurological changes are playing a significant role in the diagnosis of psychiatric disorders and portraying the routes of functional restoration of mental disorders by newer imaging tools at nano-level in all directions. Because of these nanotherapeutic platforms, the molecules of nanomedicine can penetrate the Blood-Brain Barrier with an increased half-life of drug molecules. The discoveries in nanotheranostics and nanotherapeutics inbuilt unique multi-functionalities are providing the best multiplicities of novel nanotherapeutic potentialities with no toxicity concerns at the level of nano range.

Keywords: Psychiatric disorders, nanotheranostics, nanotherapeutics, neurodegeneration, pro-inflammatory cytokines, microglial dysfunction, and kynurenine pathway