Nanotheranostics 2021; 5(2):182-196. doi:10.7150/ntno.52361

Research Paper

Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeted photodynamic therapy enhances the delivery of PSMA-targeted magnetic nanoparticles to PSMA-expressing prostate tumors

Ethel J. Ngen1, Ying Chen1, Babak Behnam Azad1, Srikanth Boinapally1, Desmond Jacob1, Ala Lisok1, Chentian Shen1, Mir S. Hossain1, Jiefu Jin1, Zaver M. Bhujwalla1,2, Martin G. Pomper1,2, Sangeeta R. Banerjee1,2,3✉

1. The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.
2. The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21231, USA.
3. The F. M. Kirby Research Center for Functional Brain Imaging, Kennedy Krieger Research Institute, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). See http://ivyspring.com/terms for full terms and conditions.
Citation:
Ngen EJ, Chen Y, Azad BB, Boinapally S, Jacob D, Lisok A, Shen C, Hossain MS, Jin J, Bhujwalla ZM, Pomper MG, Banerjee SR. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeted photodynamic therapy enhances the delivery of PSMA-targeted magnetic nanoparticles to PSMA-expressing prostate tumors. Nanotheranostics 2021; 5(2):182-196. doi:10.7150/ntno.52361. Available from https://www.ntno.org/v05p0182.htm

File import instruction

Abstract

Enhanced vascular permeability in tumors plays an essential role in nanoparticle delivery. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is overexpressed on the epithelium of aggressive prostate cancers (PCs). Here, we evaluated the feasibility of increasing the delivery of PSMA-targeted magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) to tumors by enhancing vascular permeability in PSMA(+) PC tumors with PSMA-targeted photodynamic therapy (PDT).

Method: PSMA(+) PC3 PIP tumor-bearing mice were given a low-molecular-weight PSMA-targeted photosensitizer and treated with fluorescence image-guided PDT, 4 h after. The mice were then given a PSMA-targeted MNP immediately after PDT and monitored with fluorescence imaging and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (T2-W MRI) 18 h, 42 h, and 66 h after MNP administration. Untreated PSMA(+) PC3 PIP tumor-bearing mice were used as negative controls.

Results: An 8-fold increase in the delivery of the PSMA-targeted MNPs was detected using T2-W MRI in the pretreated tumors 42 h after PDT, compared to untreated tumors. Additionally, T2-W MRIs revealed enhanced peripheral intra-tumoral delivery of the PSMA-targeted MNPs. That finding is in keeping with two-photon microscopy, which revealed higher vascular densities at the tumor periphery.

Conclusion: These results suggest that PSMA-targeted PDT enhances the delivery of PSMA-targeted MNPs to PSMA(+) tumors by enhancing the vascular permeability of the tumors.

Keywords: prostate cancer, magnetic nanoparticle delivery, photodynamic therapy (PDT), enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)