Nanotheranostics 2018; 2(3):211-221. doi:10.7150/ntno.25119 This issue
1. State Key Supramolecular Structure and Materials Laboratory, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, P. R. China;
2. The Oral Pathology Department, School and Hospital attached to Stomatology, Jilin University, Changchun 130021, P. R. China;
3. Collaborative Innovation Center attached to Marine Biomass Fibers, Shandong Province Materials and Textiles, Marine Biobased Materials Institute, Materials Science and Engineering School, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071, P. R. China;
4. Department of Thoracic Surgery, China-Japan Union Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun 130033, P. R. China.
Polypyrrole (PPy) nanoparticles (NPs) possess high near-infrared absorption and good biosafety, showing the potentials as photothermal therapeutic materials. However, the single function and the weak diagnostic function limit the further combination with other functional units to achieve theranostics. In this work, polyaminopyrrole (PPy-NH2) is demonstrated as the alternative of PPy for preparing NPs. Because of the amino group, metal ions, such as Cu(II) and Fe(III) can be loaded in PPy-NH2 NPs, which extends the applications in multimodal theranostics. Systematical studies reveal that the contribution of Cu(II) in multimodal theranostics is greater than Fe(III). Cu can enhance T1 response signal for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and be released controllably in the organism, leading to the effect of chemotherapy. Therefore, Cu(II) and Fe(III) co-loaded PPy-NH2 NPs are defined as CuPPy-NH2 NPs. Experimental results indicate that the optimal size of CuPPy-NH2 NPs is 50.2 nm. The photothermal transduction efficiency is 76.4%. After thermochemotherapy, a complete ablation of human oral epithelial carcinoma tumors is observed. No tumor recurrence is found.
Methods: Cu(II) and Fe(III) co-loaded PPy-NH2 NPs are prepared through oxidation polymerization by mixing Py-NH2, CuCl2, and FeCl3 in water under stirring at room temperature, which are defined as CuPPy-NH2 NPs. The as-prepared CuPPy-NH2 NPs are tested with a variety of cell and animal experiments for tumor theranostics.
Results: CuPPy-NH2 NPs have good light stability, photothermal stability, biosafety and low toxicity. The optimal size of theranostic CuPPy-NH2 NPs is 50.2 nm, which present a photothermal transduction efficiency of 76.4%. The doped Cu(II) ions also show chemotherapeutic behavior. After thermochemotherapy, a complete ablation of human oral epithelial carcinoma tumors is observed. No tumor recurrence is found. Because of the unpaired electron in Cu atomic orbits, CuPPy-NH2 NPs also show T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging.
Conclusions: This kind of transition metal-doped polymer gives a competitive approach for designing and fabricating multimodal theranostic nanodevices, which shows the potential in tumor treatment.
Keywords: polyaminopyrrole nanoparticles, theranostics, magnetic resonance imaging, thermochemotherapy