Nanotheranostics 2017; 1(2):166-177. doi:10.7150/ntno.18531 This issue


Recent strategies to design vascular theranostic nanoparticles

Mukesh K. Gupta1, Yunki Lee1, Timothy C. Boire1, Jung-Bok Lee1, Won Shik Kim2, Hak-Joon Sung1,3,4✉

1. Department of Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA;
2. Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, South Korea;
3. Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA;
4. Severance Biomedical Science Institute, College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul, South Korea.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC) license ( See for full terms and conditions.
Gupta MK, Lee Y, Boire TC, Lee JB, Kim WS, Sung HJ. Recent strategies to design vascular theranostic nanoparticles. Nanotheranostics 2017; 1(2):166-177. doi:10.7150/ntno.18531. Available from

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Graphic abstract

Vascular disease is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Current surgical intervention and treatment options for vascular diseases have exhibited limited long-term success, emphasizing the need to develop advanced treatment paradigms for early detection and more effective treatment of dysfunctional cells in a specific blood vessel lesion. Advances in targeted nanoparticles mediating cargo delivery enables more robust prevention, screening, diagnosis, and treatment of vascular disorders. In particular, nanotheranostics integrates diagnostic imaging and therapeutic function into a single agent, and is an emerging platform towards more effective and localized vascular treatment. This review article highlights recent advances and current challenges associated with the utilization of targeted nanoparticles for real-time diagnosis and treatment of vascular diseases. Given recent developments, nanotheranostics offers great potential to serve as an effective platform for targeted, localized, and personalized vascular treatment.

Keywords: vascular diseases, nanotheranostics